Yes and no. Marbles were used for playing as long as we know of. In Egypt and Pre Colombian America, marbles were used, made of fired clay. Children used whatever material came to hand: polished stones, nuts et cetera.
Glass marbles were not known until the 10th century AD, when the first ones were made in Venice. Around about the same time, we find marbles made out of for example polished marble. Glass and stone marbles were the hit in Europe for many centuries. Around 1905, the first glass marbles were made by machine, in America. Their higher quality meant a disaster for the market of European handmade marbles. The handmade quality has become a luxury item.